The Republic of Tajikistan
Capital – Dushanbe
Geographical position – The Republic of Tajikistan is located in the southeastern part of Central Asia.
Area – 142 600 km2
Population – 8931 million people (as of 01.01.2018)
National currency – somoni
Tajikistan borders with Uzbekistan in the west and north-west (1,322.9 km), with Kyrgyzstan in the north (987 km), with China in the east (494.95 km), with Afghanistan in the south (1,344.15 km) … A mountainous and rainy country with huge water and mineral resources. The country has no access to the sea and international waters.
Mountains occupy 93% of the territory of Tajikistan, and only 7% of them are plains.
Tajikistan has one of the highest peaks in the world (Ismoili Somoni peak – 7495 m).
In the north of Tajikistan there is the Fergana Valley, in the north-west and in the central part there are the Zeravshan, Gissar, Turkestan and Alai ranges.
In the southeast there is the Pamir (one of the highest points in the world), and in the southwest – the Vakhsh and Gissar valleys.
The highest peaks of Tajikistan
height above sea level in meters:
I. Somoni Peak – 7495
Peak Abu Ali Ibn Sina – 7134
Peak E. Korzhenevskaya – 7105
Peak of Independence – 6974
Peak Moscow – 6785
K. Marks Peak – 6726
Peak Garmo – 6595
Peak of Soviet Officers – 6233
Engels Peak – 6510
Woodor Peak – 6132
Peak Northern Muzkul – 6128
Mayakovsky Peak – 6096
Pakhhor Peak – 6083
The great wealth of the Republic of Tajikistan is its rivers and lakes. The length of 947 rivers is more than 28,500 km, which is about 60% of the hydropower resources of Central Asia.
The longest rivers in Tajikistan
(the area of their flow in kilometers on the territory of Tajikistan)
Panj – 921
Amu Darya – 65
Syrdarya – 185
Zarafshan – 306
Bartang – Murghab – 491
Vakhsh – 524
Kofvrniҳon – 387
Gund – 296
In the highlands of Tajikistan, there are huge reserves of snow and ice. The total area of glaciers in Tajikistan, numbering over a thousand, is 8476 square kilometers. The length of 16 glaciers exceeds 16 kilometers, including the Fedchenko and Grum-Gryzhimailo glaciers.
MAIN GLACIERS OF TAJIKISTAN
Glacier Area Glacier Volume
Fedchenko – 156.0 – 93.6
Garmo – 114.6 – —
Vitkovsky – 50.2 – 6.882
USSR Academy of Sciences – 48.0 – 5.242
Nalivkin – 45.2 – 8.588
Bivachiy – 37.0 – 8.05
Grumm Grzhimailov – 37.0 – 19.84
In Tajikistan, there are more than 1,300 lakes with an area of 705 square kilometers, the largest of which are Karakul, Sarez and Yashikul. The lakes of Tajikistan are located at an altitude of over 3,500 meters above sea level.
LARGE LAKES OF TAJIKISTAN (area in km2)
Sarez – 79.64
Zorkul – 38.9
Yashilkul – 38.0
Shorkul – 16.3
Large reservoirs of Tajikistan
Water bodies Area km2 Water volume mln m3
Kairakkum – 520.0 – 4160
Norak – 106.0-10,500
The land, flora and fauna of Tajikistan are diverse, fertile and have high potential. The forests of Tajikistan are rich in wild fruit trees and thousands of plant species that are widely used by the population. In Tajikistan, there are more than 80 species of mammals, more than 365 species of birds, 49 species of reptiles, about 40 species of fish, more than 10 thousand species of insects. There are snow leopards, lynxes, hyenas, wolves, foxes, martens, as well as deer and argali.
Currently, there are 4 reserves: Tigrovaya Balka, Romit, Dashti Jum, Zorkul, 13 nurseries and a National Park, the total area of which covers 21% of the territory of Tajikistan.
Tajikistan is rich in minerals. Currently, more than 400 deposits are known and there are about 100 mines in which up to 40 types of mineral raw materials, fuel, ores (about 10%) and non-mineral ores (about 90%) are mined and processed.
Tajikistan is the leader in the region in terms of coal reserves. The total geological reserves in this sector are about 4.0 billion tons. The territory of Tajikistan is rich in polychemical resources, precious stones, rare metals: zinc, lead, bismuth, molybdenum, tungsten, gold, silver, antimony, mercury, as well as gas and oil.
Agricultural potential of Tajikistan (thousand ha)
The area of arable land is 864.4
Irrigated area is 592.3
Sown area, total-900.2
including the yield of beans-401.9
Technical harvest, total-294